Hyperpigmentation can be aggravating for your skin and self-confidence. But before you search for suitable treatments, you need to understand how and why it’s happening. This is basically a condition where skin darkens due to abnormally high levels of melanin. The variation can be anything from diffuse to clustered, large to small, red or pink. Any portion of the skin that you see is a shade darker than the other areas is hyperpigmented, and it can happen anywhere. Wearing a sunscreen lotion can protect you from developing such hyperpigmented regions on your body.
Types of Melanin
Pigments are made by melanocyte cells using one of the two types of melanin; pheomelanin or eumelanin. Each of them creates distinct colors of pigment and both of them are found in skin. Pheomelanin is red to yellow in color and is generally found in light-toned skin or in the lips. Since it cannot absorb UV rays, it makes it more sensitive to the rays. On the other hand, Eumelanin is brown to black in color and is generally found in people of darker skin. It is a better skin protector, which helps in absorbing UV rays.
Skin Discoloration Types and Treatment
The coloration varies from light to medium brown, and it mostly occurs above the lip, forehead, upper part of the nose, sides of the face and the cheeks. It appears in patches with no definite shape and size, and results due to a surge in hormones, generally from birth control or pregnancy coupled with UV ray exposure. Because of its ability to reoccur again and again, it’s hard to cure it completely. However, it can be controlled with Retin A, Hydroquinone, glycolic, lactic, or salicylic acid peels, along with Cosmelan or Intense Pulsed Light plus vitamin C.
Sunspots or Liver Spots
Another light to dark brown discoloration that can easily appear as dark spots on the hands, chest and face. They are small, flat and irregular in shape, caused by the ultraviolet rays of the sun. It can be treated with fractional laser resurfacing or Retinol and Intense Pulsed Light.
This variation can appear anywhere on the face, and can vary from pink, brown or red in color. It is mainly caused by inflammatory acne and appears as flat spots. Blue light or red light treatments are ideal in case of active acne, while light salicylic acid chemical peels serve the purpose. You can also use the F&F Hyper-Pigmentation Reduce Body Cleanser. This creamy body cleanser reduces hyperpigmentation effect by deep cleansing and lightening of skin. Sunflower and soy replenish natural moisture, while natural lactic acid gently exfoliates the skin. Excess sweat and oil is removed, leaving your skin radiant and fresh.
Black or red in color or even light to dark brown, the freckles are caused by sun. These small concentrated spots can occur anywhere on the arms, chest and the face, giving a patchy look to the body. A couple of recommended treatments for freckles is Fraxel Laser, or skincare products that are well-positioned to lessen the effects of freckles.